Mom tongue or first language is maybe probably the most favourite factor for any particular person. The query of language has resulted into many conflicts and discontentment. The prime instance of such discontentment is the Language Motion of 1952 in Bangladesh. Then again we can’t reside in isolation. We’ve to keep up a correspondence with the audio system of different languages. Bangladesh is taken into account to be a monolingual nation by which greater than 98% of the inhabitants is audio system of Bangla language. Nonetheless, there are greater than ten languages in such a small nation like Bangladesh. Monipuri, Urdu, Chakma, Santali, Garo, Rakhain, Tipra- are simply a number of the different languages current in Bangladesh.
The attention-grabbing factor is that Urdu is a Indo-European language however written in Arabic script, Santali belongs to the Mono-Khemar language household whereas Chakma belongs to the Chinese language-Barmese language group. So, though Bangladesh is commonly portrayed as a rustic of linguistic unity primarily based on Bangla language in actuality it has notable linguistic variety. To speak with the audio system of different languages we both must know their language or talk in a Lingua-Franca that’s understandable to each of us.
At present, the world has change into a worldwide village. Due to the development of communication system and expertise. Each nation depends on others for commerce and commerce, schooling, politics and so on. Consequently, we have now to continually talk with different international locations and audio system of different languages. Third world international locations like Bangladesh must rely upon international help as a result of they don’t seem to be self-sufficient. Consequently, many foreigners come to Bangladesh. A 3rd issue is the issue of faith. The sacred language of the Muslims is Arabic, Sanskrit for Hindus, Pali for the Buddhists and Latin for the Christians.
All these elements remind us the need for studying different language(s) along with our mom tongue. In keeping with this actuality many international locations of the world have adopted a European language as second language which is commonly utilized in schooling, regulation courtroom, financial actions and authorities works. These languages have more often than not official standing within the structure of these international locations. Lots of the circumstances the international locations have adopted the language of their previous colonial rulers because the second language. Generally these languages are additionally known as official language. In lots of African international locations we will see this image. Then again, some European languages have change into crucial on the planet for literary and financial functions. For instance, German and French are thought of to be vital languages of the world as a result of each of them have influential literature and financial facets related to them.
For instance, many individuals in our nation have an interest to be taught French as a result of it might assist them to get UN jobs and jobs in Multinational corporations. One other enticing motivation for studying French in Bangladesh is that it might assist us to immigrate to Canada as ability in French language provides an individual some additional factors within the level system of Canadian immigration.
The title of my analysis is “Standing of English in Bangladesh: Second language or international language?” I’ve chosen this matter as a result of from sociolinguistic standpoint the standing of English is a really attention-grabbing one. On the one hand English language is dominantly current in each facet of our nationwide life whereas however in our structure it’s clearly declared that the language of the nation is Bangla. In truth, nothing is alleged in regards to the standing of English language in our structure. On one hand, financial actions within the personal corporations are carried out in English whereas there’s a authorities regulation (Bangla procholon ain1987) that authorities places of work should use Bangla of their official works. So from the federal government standpoint Bangla is the national- official language of Bangladesh and English is crucial international language. However in actuality English is the second language of the nation and in lots of locations English is extra vital than Bangla in Bangladesh.
A second language is any language apart from the primary, or native, language realized; it’s usually used due to geographical or social causes. The time period is to be distinguished from international language; linguist Eric Lenneberg makes use of second language in his vital interval speculation to imply a language consciously realized or utilized by its speaker after puberty. Usually, folks by no means obtain the identical stage of fluency and comprehension of their second languages as of their first language.
Traditionally in Europe, probably the most broadly used second language (or lingua franca) was Latin. It was utilized by the Church; by the Legislation (because it nonetheless is right now); in Medication (beginning a lot later); Horticulture and organic classification of crops, animals, fruits, nuts, and so on.
Latin was used a lot throughout Europe that it was known as the vulgar (or frequent tongue); for this reason the Latin model of the Bible known as the Vulgate.
These days, English is taken into account the world’s most widespread second language; it’s utilized in areas as numerous because the web, tv and radio, and worldwide aviation.
The success of English all through the world stems from two main causes: the far reaching affect of the British Empire, and the twentieth century (and persevering with) dominance of america within the fields of enterprise and leisure.
French was for a time the lingua franca (the origin of time period) in Europe. In historical past, each England and France had been dominated by a single crown – the language utilized by the royal courtroom was French (English was thought of “the peasant’s language”). Afterwards, as was the case with English, the French empire unfold its language via colonization. French continues to be one of many world’s most generally spoken languages. (Supply: Wikipedia)
If we have a look at the definition of second language then we will simply say that English is the second language of Bangladesh. It’s broadly utilized in many elements of our nationwide life. Many individuals watch English tv channels and likewise use Web. The scholars have to check it for twelve years and people who need to be a part of civil service by attending BCS examination even have to sit down for English examination. The one factor that’s lacking from the above definition is the truth that apart from formal events nobody speaks in English in Bangladesh. It isn’t the language utilized in house amongst relations and amongst mates in casual dialog.
A international language is a language not spoken by the indigenous folks of a sure place: for instance, English is a international language in Japan. It’s also a language not spoken within the native nation of the particular person referred to, i.e. an English speaker residing in Japan can say that Japanese is a international language to her or him.
Some kids be taught multiple language from start or from a really younger age: they’re bilingual. These kids will be stated to have two mom tongues: neither language is international to that little one, even when one language is a international language for the overwhelming majority of individuals within the kid’s start nation. For instance, a toddler studying English from her English mom in Japan can communicate each English and Japanese, however neither is a international language to her. (Supply- Wikipedia)
From the above definition, it’s seen that international language refers to a language that’s not native to an individual. From this standpoint English will be thought of as a international language in Bangladesh since it isn’t native in our nation. Hardly any Bangladeshi particular person speaks in English though a lot of them use it in schooling and enterprise.
An official language is one thing that’s given a novel standing within the international locations, states, and different territories. It’s usually the language utilized in a nation’s legislative our bodies, although the regulation in many countries requires that authorities paperwork be produced in different languages as nicely.
Formally acknowledged minority languages are sometimes mistaken for official languages. Nonetheless, a language formally acknowledged by a state, taught in faculties, and utilized in official communication is just not essentially an official language. For instance, Ladin and Sardinian in Italy and Mirandese in Portugal are solely formally acknowledged minority languages, not official languages within the strict sense.
Half of the international locations on the planet have official languages. Some have just one official language, comparable to Albania, France, or Lithuania, even supposing in all these international locations there are different native languages spoken as nicely. Some have multiple official language, comparable to Afghanistan, Belarus, Belgium, Bolivia, Canada, Eritrea, Finland, India, Paraguay, South Africa, and Switzerland.
In some international locations, comparable to Iraq, Italy, Russia and Spain, there’s an official language for the nation, however different languages are co-official in some vital areas. Some international locations, comparable to Australia, Sweden, Tuvalu, and america haven’t any official languages.
The official languages of some former colonies, usually French or English, usually are not the nationwide languages or probably the most broadly spoken language.
In distinction, as a consequence of nationalism, Irish is the “nationwide language” of the Republic of Eire and its first official language, though it’s spoken by solely a small fraction of its folks. English, which is spoken by the bulk, is described solely because the second official language (Structure of Eire, Article 8).
In some international locations, the difficulty of which language is for use in what context is a serious political situation.(Supply-Wikipedia)
From the above definition, it’s seen that the notion of official language is difficult. In keeping with our structure English can’t be termed because the official language of Bangladesh because it has no standing in our structure. The one language that’s talked about in our structure is Bangla. However English is allowed in our parliament and lots of authorities occasions. For instance, when there’s a authorities occasion by which some foreigners attend then in lots of circumstances the audio system use English language. Many vital authorities paperwork are written each in Bangla and English. The parliament proceedings are saved into these two languages. When a authorities physique organizes a good then usually the memento is printed in English.
In regards to the language of the nation the Bangladeshi structure clearly states:
“The state language.
The state language of the Republic is [Bangla].”
Within the structure nothing is talked about in regards to the standing of English. English is just not talked about as a second language or official language. So if we take the standing of English in our structure then we can not declare that English is a Second language or Official Language in Bangladesh.
English in Legislation courtroom in Bangladesh:
After Independence the federal government took the initiative to implement Bangla language in regulation courtroom. Consequently, now the decrease courts perform their actions in Bangla however English is but very influential in Excessive Court docket and Supreme Court docket. If a lawyer needs to observe in Supreme courtroom then he should have an excellent command over English language. Lots of the judges nonetheless give their verdicts in English language. Evidently this pattern of utilizing English will stay for the forcible future.
English in Training sector in Bangladesh:
Formal and institutionalized schooling system began in Bangladesh in the course of the British rule. At the moment Bangladesh was a part of British India. There was a debate in regards to the medium of schooling. Raja Rammohan Roy argued that the medium must be English reasonably than Sanskrit or Persian. Throughout the British interval the medium of schooling was largely in English. Calcutta College took an initiative in 1935 to introduce Bangla as a medium of schooling together with English. In Bangladesh using Bangla in faculty stage began within the Sixties. Now college students can reply within the examinations in Bangla or English. Within the faculty stage and college stage after 1971 the federal government tried to patronize Bangla and implement it by changing English within the schooling sector however this didn’t got here into actuality due to some fundamental issues. The primary drawback is that there have been not sufficient books of any area in Bangla language. This drawback is extra acute in science and expertise. For instance, there are nearly no books in Bangla about laptop expertise that can be utilized as a reference ebook within the College stage.
Really there are three sorts of schooling techniques in our country- Bangla medium, English medium, and Madrasa system. Bangla medium faculties will be divided into two sections- authorities faculties, and kindergarten faculties. Within the kindergarten faculties extra emphasis is given on English language than authorities faculties. Among the well-known kindergarten faculties of Dhaka are Vikarounnesa, Holycross, Willes Little Flower, and so forth. Though these faculties belong to Bangla medium the scholars have to check 3-4 English books like: Radiant Manner, Lively English, Desk Work, Basic English, Brighter Grammar, and so forth. Then again within the authorities faculties there’s primarily one English ebook (English for At present) which is printed by Bangladesh Textual content E-book Board. The English medium faculties don’t comply with Bangladeshi schooling system and are below the supervision of British Council. The medium of instruction in these faculties is English and lots of the college students of English medium are even very weak in Bangla language. There are two sorts of Madrassas – Dakhil and Kawmi. The Kawmi Madrassas usually are not acknowledged by the federal government and don’t obtain any help from the federal government. On this Madrassas emphasis is given on studying Arabic, Persian, and Urdu whereas Bangla and English are uncared for. Then again in Dakhil Madrassas emphasis is especially given on Arabic and Bangla and English usually are not a lot uncared for.
So we will clearly see that the distinction in schooling system in Bangladesh is solely primarily based on the distinction within the medium of schooling. Though Bangla is the Nationwide-Official language of Bangladesh it’s the English medium schooling institutes who get more cash. The rise of personal universities has solely elevated the standing and significance of English language in Bangladesh. There are actually greater than 50 personal Universities in Bangladesh and the medium of schooling in all of them is English. These universities cost 2 lakh to five lakh taka for Bachelor course. If the medium of schooling was in Bangla then hardly any scholar or mother and father would get to pay such enormous cash for the schooling in personal universities.
From the above dialogue it’s clear that in our basic schooling system English has equal if no more significance than Bangla. In our schooling system English is absolutely the Second language as all the scholars have to check it as a obligatory topic for twelve years.
English and Administration:
Throughout the language motion the folks of Bangladesh had been afraid that if Urdu was established because the State Language of Pakistan then all the federal government actions might be carried out in Urdu and our folks will endure. Because of the language motion, the Pakistani Regime saved on finishing up authorities actions in English language. After Bangladesh grew to become unbiased the federal government of Awami League determined to exchange English with Bangla in administrative works however after the dying of Sheikh Mujib this course of got here to a halt and English continued to stay because the dominant language. It was in the course of the rule of Ershad Bangla Procholon Aeen of 1987 was created and applied. From that point English began to lose its significance in administration. Nonetheless, it needs to be talked about that every one the worldwide communication of Bangladesh authorities is carried out via English.
English in Financial actions:
The financial system of Bangladesh depends on international aids and export of some frequent objects like prepared made clothes, jute, tea, fish and so on and likewise we import a variety of issues. Bangladesh is just not independent economically. Buying and selling is extra well-liked than manufacturing. Buying and selling requires fixed communication with international corporations. Lots of the corporations who’re concerned in buying and selling have to make use of English in coping with foreigners. Suppose, an organization is doing buying and selling with China which isn’t an English talking nation. Then the corporate has to contact the Chinese language firm in English. If we have a look at the ads of the personal sector jobs then we will simply discover that a lot of the job ads are posted in English. Even a lot of the personal sector job ads which are posted in Bengali newspapers are posted in English. Nearly all of the personal jobs state that the candidates should have good proficiency in English language. Nearly all the general public restricted corporations publish their annual stories in English. A few of these corporations produce a Bangla model of their annual report however the emphasis is all the time on English. So it’s clear that English is the dominant language in our financial actions.
Comparability of English with Arabic, Sanskrit, and Pali in Bangladesh:
Arabic, Sanskrit and Pali are the spiritual languages of Muslims, Hindus and Buddhists respectively. Even the uneducated folks attempt to be taught these languages as they’re thought of to be holy. If we evaluate the educational of English with these languages then we will see that English is given extra significance. For instance, the tutoring payment of a English teaching heart is way larger than that of an Arabic teaching centre. English personal tutors get 4-5 instances more cash than Arabic personal tutors (Huzur). So though Arabic has spiritual sentiment hooked up to it English is taken into account to be extra vital because it has financial profit.
Comparability of English international languages like French, German, and Farsi:
French and German have change into very talked-about for financial causes in our nation. Studying these languages assist us to extend our chance to get a UN job. Studying French can be useful for getting immigration to Canada. Additionally there are good services to be taught these languages in Dhaka College, Alliance Francaise, and Goethe Institute. Not too long ago, the English Institute of North South College has launched French course. Then again in the course of the Muslim reign Farsi was the language of the Royal administration and regulation courtroom in Bangladesh. At current, a scholar can attend Farsi course for one semester by simply paying tk. 250 in Iran Cultural Middle however there usually are not many college students who’re to be taught Farsi, French, and German. Then again, a whole lot of scholars annually seem for TOEFL and IELTS exams in English language.
From the above image it’s clear that the standing of English is way larger than international languages like German, French, and Farsi. We can’t deny the truth that if an individual is nice at English then he can earn cash in any a part of Bangladesh but when an individual is nice at French, German, or Farsi he has hardly any scope to earn cash by utilizing his expertise in these languages.
From the dialogue thus far there is no such thing as a doubt that English is the second language of Bangladesh however this actuality is just not mirrored in our structure. Formally Bangladesh is just not often known as an ESL nation to the skin world. So Bangladesh must be declared as an ESL nation by the federal government with none delay. We be taught English not as a result of we like Shakespeare or Dickens. We be taught English from out of every single day necessity. If Bangladesh is asserted as an ESL nation and English language is given a transparent standing within the structure then it is not going to solely replicate the truth but additionally it’ll assist us internationally. Now Bangladesh is desperately attempting to draw international buyers. Earlier than any firm involves Bangladesh for exploring the funding alternatives one of many key areas they’d search for is the supply of pool of English graduates and so they additionally anticipate that the traditional staff can have fundamental understanding of English language. If we change into an ESL nation then these international corporations whereas looking out about Bangladesh will get assured in regards to the sturdy presence of English language on this nation.
The identical image is there about instructional sector. Many Bangladeshi college students need to go to developed international locations like USA, UK , Canada, and Australia for larger schooling. If Bangladesh is asserted as an ESL nation then these college students might be benefited as a result of then the Universities of these international locations will get the concept that English has particular significance in Bangladesh.
So I like to recommend to the federal government of Bangladesh that English must be declared because the second language of the nation by amending the structure.
Bangladesh is the one nation on the planet whose folks sacrificed their lives for the language. Now the historic language motion of 1952 is acknowledged internationally because the Worldwide Mom Language Day. It’s true that our persons are emotional about their language, Bangla. Nonetheless, it’s equally true that now our folks have change into determined about getting expert in English language. Consequently, there are greater than fifty personal universities now in Bangladesh. If North South Supplied BBA and Pc Science programs in Bangla medium then they’d not get even 10% of the variety of college students they’ve now. It’s now good time that we end the nice contradiction in regards to the language situation and declare Bangladesh as an ESL nation for our personal profit.
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