Renewable power (RE) includes of power from the solar (instantly), normally referred to as photo voltaic, biomass, wind, tidal, geothermal and hydro. The endowment of those assets will decide how a lot of every type of renewable power supply might be exploited in a rustic. For instance, Bangladesh doesn’t have geothermal potential and its hydro potential, particularly that primarily based on elevation, is small. Tidal is a brand new type of power supply that’s but to attain commercialisation. It thus leaves photo voltaic, wind and biomass as the one present choices. With reference to biomass, the principal drawback is the excessive demand of agricultural and animal wastes for cooking in rural areas. Furthermore, extracting an excessive amount of natural matter in an unsustainable method can result in soil degradation. Nonetheless, by means of the bio-gasification route, there exists important potential, however that might require cautious planning and administration of the bioresources.
Within the case of Bangladesh, the principal barrie with biomass are; the value is excessive and gathering giant portions is troublesome, therefore costly. Wind has all the time been a problematic useful resource to judge within the context of Bangladesh. A bunch of specialists consider that the wind potential in Bangladesh, particularly onshore, is restricted. The offshore potential is unknown, despite the fact that one does hear of unsubstantiated claims of big potential. In monetary phrases, it’s troublesome to touch upon this within the absence of complete environmental and technical funding grade research on offshore wind potential.
Photo voltaic power is the one most reliable RE useful resource that may be resourced on a big scale. This expectation is popping out to be true with native and overseas investments occurring in grid-tied utility scale photo voltaic parks and industrial rooftop initiatives. In accordance with the Chairman of SREDA, greater than 1,000 MW of utility scale photo voltaic parks and 500 MW of economic/industrial rooftop photo voltaic PV initiatives beneath the web metering scheme are on the horizon.
In accordance with the Bangladesh Energy Growth Board (BPDB), as of January 2022, Bangladesh had 22,066 MW of grid-connected put in capability, the gasoline sensible breakdown of which is proven in Determine 1. RE consists of solely 2.08 % of the full put in capability related to the grid; half of that, i.e., 1.04 % is hydropower, which has remained static in era since 1967. The whole image of RE deployment might be seen from Determine 2, which exhibits each on-grid and off-grid RE purposes. A big portion of the claimed 543 MW solar energy is off-grid photo voltaic, grid-tied photo voltaic parks solely contributes 196 MW. It’s value stating that, because of the extension of rural electrification by means of the enlargement of the grid, a big portion of the Photo voltaic PV House Techniques that introduced a lot fame to Bangladesh is mendacity idle. As anticipated, RE in Bangladesh is dominated by photo voltaic with different sources being very small compared.
It’s clear that Bangladesh is struggling to extend the share of RE in its power combine. The way forward for RE in Bangladesh additionally doesn’t look very brilliant, except the federal government takes steps to discover new and modern methods of harnessing RE.
Agricultural land and photo voltaic initiatives
The only greatest barrier to the large-scale deployment of photo voltaic PV electrical energy is the acute scarcity of land. The issue is extra related with the coverage—complete ban on use of agricultural land for photo voltaic initiatives—than land availability. In Bangladesh, land could be very fragmented, and it is extremely troublesome to seek out contiguous land to assemble even a 50 MW photo voltaic park with out encroaching onto agricultural land. Thus, as an alternative of a complete ban, a coverage may very well be formulated that allows a certain quantity of agricultural land; say 25 % of the land of a single photo voltaic park, to a most of 200 acres per challenge.
Using just one % of the full agricultural land of Bangladesh can facilitate the development of roughly 50,000 MW of solar energy crops. Utilizing the common capability issue of 4.5 hours per day for Bangladesh, the electrical energy output from the one % agricultural land is roughly 82,000 GWh, which is greater than the full consumption within the yr 2020. If the price of gasoline saved is in contrast with the output of even three-cropped land, the monetary advantages will probably be greater than 5 instances. The misplaced agricultural output of the one % land might be simply made up by stopping spoilage that happens because of the lack of chilly storages and different processing services.
Determine 3: Value of electrical energy for various applied sciences and fuels. SOURCE: FRAUNHOFER INSTITUTE FOR SOLAR ENERGY SYSTEMS
Optimum twin utilization of land and Floating Photo voltaic Farms (‘floatovoltaics’)
Since land could be very costly in Bangladesh, twin use of land could make many photo voltaic initiatives viable. There are over 2.83 million hectares of low-lying land in Bangladesh (roughly 20 % of the full space of the nation). Utilizing such low-lying land mixed with fisheries is one such modern resolution. A 50 MW solar-fisheries challenge has been authorised and challenge implementation is underway.
“Floatovoltaics” are photovoltaic (PV) solar energy methods designed for floating on reservoirs, lakes, rivers, and different water our bodies. Floating photo voltaic farms can generate enormous quantities of electrical energy with out utilizing beneficial land. Bangladesh, being a riverine nation, is right for floatovoltaics deployment. A complete research and pilot initiatives are required to harness this potential.
Quite a few lakes and reservoirs are beneath the jurisdiction of WASA might be developed as private-public three way partnership initiatives.
There are numerous different modern photo voltaic applied sciences being researched and commercially developed. One very promising expertise for Bangladesh is “Agrivoltaics”, the place crops might be grown beneath the photo voltaic panels. A regular standard photo voltaic panel is essentially opaque to daylight. Due to this fact, beneath the PV panels most crops is not going to develop. Panels require solely a small portion of the photo voltaic bandwidth; due to this fact, applied sciences are being developed that may filter this for electrical energy manufacturing and move by means of the infrared and ultraviolet rays wanted by crops, i.e., a translucent/clear photo voltaic panel. If this expertise achieves full industrial software, the land constraint that Bangladesh is going through will probably be eliminated.
Electrical energy transmission community
Even though Bangladesh is a small nation when it comes to space; electrical energy grid protection could be very poor. Cheap land is invariably situated removed from the prevailing electrical energy infrastructure. The Bangladesh authorities must undertake an enormous grid modernisation initiative. The carrying capability of the nationwide community of transmission strains must be made good and expanded all through the nation. Being geographically small, regardless of the place the photo voltaic plant is situated the grid ought to have the ability to ship energy anyplace within the nation with minimal losses. With a wise, built-in transmission community related regionally, the intermittent nature of renewable power might be made extra dependable and strong.
Photo voltaic mixed with Battery Vitality Storage System (BESS)
Photo voltaic PV electrical energy is already the most cost effective supply of electrical energy in lots of locations, however it’s only accessible when the solar is shining. To make photo voltaic PV electrical energy accessible at different instances and make it a supply that may actually substitute fossil fuels, one has to retailer the electrical energy for later use. This present day, essentially the most promising expertise is battery. BESS is one in every of a number of expertise choices that may improve energy system flexibility, reliability, and allow excessive ranges of renewable power integration. Because of technological improvements and improved manufacturing capability, lithium-ion chemistries have skilled a steep value decline of over 70 % from 2010-2016, and costs are projected to say no additional.
Technological developments and value discount
Fraunhofer Institute for Photo voltaic Vitality Techniques ISE has introduced the latest version of their research on the levelized price of electrical energy (LCOE) of renewable energy crops as proven. Despite the fact that the data contained is relevant for Germany, the place wind and photo voltaic are very low-cost and coal is dear due to a carbon tax, it nonetheless supplies good indications of how renewables particularly photo voltaic PV is gaining in price benefit towards standard fuel-based electrical energy.
In Germany, the price of electrical energy from Mixed Cycle Fuel Turbine (CCGT), the expertise of selection in Bangladesh, is greater than electrical energy from PV Utility Scale Battery. The common price electrical energy from PV Utility Scale Battery in Bangladesh can be round Tk 15, which is almost 100% greater than in Germany, whereas electrical energy from LNG primarily based CCGT can be roughly Tk 10.
This present day, due to this fact, PV Utility Scale Battery is far more costly than one of many cheaper electrical energy choices for Bangladesh, however this 100% price distinction is predicted to vanish by 2030, making photo voltaic electrical energy comparable in price to any standard electrical energy. Due to this fact, it is very important revise the nation’s Energy System Grasp Plan (PSMP) and combine photo voltaic choices in a significant manner by bearing in mind the fast-changing actuality of utility scale solar energy crops with storage.
The nation experiences peak energy demand on common 3 hours a day, i.e., from 7 PM to 10 PM. A BESS challenge could also be designed such that in daytime when the solar shines it prices a battery pack and discharges the saved energy at the moment. That, it is a financially viable resolution, might be verified from Determine 3; the price of electrical energy for PV Battery is way decrease than Fuel Turbine. Due to this fact, the peaking Fuel Turbine energy crops (assuming these to be fired by LNG) and the oil-based (HFO and diesel) energy crops can instantly be retired in favour of PV Battery is way decrease than Fuel Turbine. Due to this fact, the peaking Fuel Turbine energy crops (assuming these to be fired by LNG) and the oil-based (HFO and diesel) energy crops can instantly be retired in favour of PV Battery energy crops.
Administrative measures and regulatory reforms
Bangladesh has introduced daring plans round renewable power adoption in COP26. The Nationally Decided Contribution (NDC) talks a few goal of 4,100 MW Renewable Vitality by 2030. Nonetheless, these plans can be exhausting to mobilise from a personal sector perspective except substantive adjustments to the grid and regulatory reforms are applied. Quite a few obstacles for RE firms within the non-public sector are hampering the widespread use of renewable power. A number of the main challenges are enumerated under:
1. Lack of strategic path: The RE hamstrung.Completely different sector in Bangladesh lacks a transparent strategic path when it comes to setting targets from particular applied sciences. Shifting authorities priorities have seen some applied sciences (Photo voltaic House Techniques, Mini-grid) being hamstrung.Completely different competing power sources and energy methods are additionally shifting the federal government’s focus from RE. Gasoline Oil-based Fast Rental Energy Crops from small impartial energy producers are nonetheless a serious and dear portion of the ability combine, and these should be steadily phased out to make room for RE.
2. Failure of the early unsolicited utility-scale photo voltaic initiatives: The most important factors of competition have been land availability and land acquisition, securing the Proper of Means (ROW), and challenges surrounding grid-interconnection.
3. Lack of correct research, bankable knowledge, regulatory guidelines within the wind power sector: The non-public sector is uncovered to numerous danger when it comes to buying dependable and authenticated knowledge. There’s a dearth of knowledge when it comes to land availability, substation load capability, web site particular knowledge, and so forth.
4. Investor/lender curiosity surrounding uncertainties: Overseas traders/lenders are deterred over challenge timelines, interagency navigation, contract lock-ins (e.g., an area associate and their overseas associate should be part of the challenge for at the least 6 years), and lack of readability over numerous laws.
5. Utility distribution firms’ upgradation: The distribution utilities in its present state are insufficient to help mass RE adoption to serve the native electrical energy market.
The underlying issues are two-fold, first, within the infrastructure readiness and planning stage, and second, when it comes to capability and preparedness of many native stage workplaces.
Ijaz Hossain is professor (Retired), Chemical Engineering Division, BUET
Ishtiaq A Chisti is P.E., Vitality Advisor